It is the most representative percussion instrument of the Mapuche people. It is a ceremonial drum made of wood with a diameter of between 35-40 centimetres. The instrument has stones inside.  It belongs to the group of drums known as membranophones.  This means that it has a membrane which covers the hollow wooden structure and it is tied to the body of the drum. This membrane is made with a patch of rawhide of a lamb, goat or horse. The kultxüg represents the universe and it is used by the machi during ceremonies such as gillatun (gratitude ceremony), we txipanthü (mapuche New Year’s Day), and pewutun (healing rite) among others.  The kultxüg has other names depending on the geographical zone. In some places, it is known as kawiñ-kura, which seems to be the original name given by the machis in the eighteenth century to refer to the stones it has inside.  These symbolise the Earth in contrast to the divine powers which are represented by the drawings on its surface.


It is a wind instrument used in mapuche rituals or social events.  It is made of  the  hollow  stalk  of  a colihue (chusquea culeou) which is  between  2-4 metres   long and 2-10 centimetres in  diameter

and it is covered with the skin of a horse.  It has the horn  of a cow at one end, which amplifies the sound after a player blows through it at the other end.


This is an ancient instrument which has been used all over the world and it was introduced to America by the Spaniards at their arrival. It is also known as mouth harp.  Nowadays, it is made of metal, but in the case of mapuche people, it was originally made of colihue.  The player of this instrument must take the frame with one of his hands, press the arms of the instrument with his teeth and pull the trigger with his index finger.  The metal reed then vibrates and the mouth cavity works as a resonator increasing the volume of the instrument.   After the mapuche people learnt how to forge spears, knives and other similar objects, they developed the techniques, tools and materials that made it easy to spread the use of the metal txompe in their territory.


It is the house of mapuche people. It is a circular structure whose walls are made of colihue stalks and they are reinforced with wood in the inside part of the house. The whole structure is supported by two wooden poles located almost in the middle of it and covered with dry grass or reeds, which are resistant to the weather conditions of the South of Chile. The entrance to this dwelling is always facing the east because this is the place where the sun rises in Chile (behind the Andes mountains), which has a special spiritual meaning for them. In the centre of it, there is an open hearth made of stones.  The fire is constantly burning inside, and the smoke goes out through a hole in the roof.  According to the mapuche mythology, there is a spirit called gen-kuntxal who is the soul of the hearth and provides warmth to the people, their food, their home and everything in it.